Michael Laffanプリンストン大学教授講演会 / Lecture Presentation by Professor Michael Laffan of Princeton University

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東南アジアとインド洋世界のムスリムについての研究者Michael Laffanプリンストン大学教授が来日して、「トゥアン・グルとケープタウンにはじめてできたムスリムコミュニティ1780-1807年」と題する発表をおこなった。はじめにGHC東京拠点代表の羽田正からLaffan教授の経歴と業績、GHCとプリンストン―東大の協定の概要についての説明があった。
発表の内容は、トゥアン・グル(Imam 'Abdullah ibn Kadi Abdus Salaam、Tuanは年長者あるいは目上の男性に対する敬称)という、18世紀末より現南アフリカのケープタウンでムスリムコミュニティの形成に重要な役割を果たしたとされている人物に焦点をあてた報告だった。ある史料によると、トゥアン・グルはインドネシア諸島の一つで丁字の生産で名高いティドレ島の王子であり、政治的な動乱を通じ、オランダ東インド会社によってケープタウンに送られ、そこから10キロほど沖合にあるロベン島に投獄された。その後、1793年に解放されたのち、ケープタウンのドループ通りに移り住み、そこで家庭を築いたという。トゥアン・グルが投獄中に彼が記憶によって書き起こしたというコーランや、彼が書き残したとされるイスラム法学のマレー語やアラビア語の写本は、現在はケープタウンにある彼の子孫の所有となっている。しかし、彼の出身を含む経歴については謎が多く、混乱と矛盾がみられる。本発表では、奴隷の購入に関する資料やトゥアン・グルのものとされる杖などの所持品の写真、KRAMATSと呼ばれるケープタウンの墓の画像、また子孫の了解がないと閲覧できないという貴重なオリジナル原稿などを用いて、この謎や矛盾をどのように解きほぐすかが説明された。

Princeton University Professor Michael Laffan, a researcher in Southeast Asian and Indian Ocean World Muslim Studies, recently visited Japan and gave a lecture presentation titled, "Tuan Guru and the first Recognized Muslim Community of Cape Town, 1780-1807" Preceding the presentation, Professor Masashi Haneda, representative of the GHC Tokyo, gave an introduction of Professor Laffan including his career and academic achievements, as well as an overview of GHC and the University of Tokyo/Princeton University Partnership.

The presentation focused on the person, Tuan Guru (Imam 'Abdullah ibn Kadi Abdus Salaam, Tuan being a reverential title for an elder man), who is said to have performed an important role in the formation of the Muslim community in Cape Town, now in South Africa, from the end of the 18th century. According to one historical source, Tuan Guru was a prince of Tidore Island, well-known for the production of cloves, in the Indonesian archipelago, but was exiled to Cape Town by the Dutch East India Company during political disturbances and imprisoned on Robben Island, about 10 kilometers off the coast from Cape Town. After his release in 1793, he is said to have moved to Dorp Street in Cape Town and started a family. Several copies of the Holy Quran, which he wrote down from memory during his imprisonment, and copies of books on Islamic jurisprudence in the Malay and Arabic languages that Tuan Guru is said to have left behind, are now in the possession of his descendants in Cape Town. However, a great deal of mystery surrounds his career, including his origins, the history being replete with confusion and contradictions. In his presentation, Professor Laffan explained how these mysteries and contradictions can be disentangled by use of sources on the purchase of slaves, and photographs of objects said to have been owned by Tuan Guru, such as a walking cane, images of the graves known as Kramats in Cape Town, and his precious original manuscripts that can only be viewed with the permission of his descendants.

In the question and answer session, lively discussions took place on a wide range of questions and inquiries regarding methodology, including:
- Why this series of events is summarized using the concept of "Muslim" rather than terms such as "Javanese" or "Malayan" that were in use at the time;
- What the impacts are of domestic politics in Cape Town or South Africa, or internal conflicts within the Muslim community, when researchers or general investigators write about the history of Tuan Guru;
- Whether oral history and so on are being investigated as well as the manuscripts and other written materials that have been handed down;
- What the background is to old photographs that were used in the presentation.
(Atsuko Ukai)